Explore information related to mysql


AWS RDS parameter group max_allowed_packet - How to Modify the parameter ?


This article covers how to create and modify the AWS RDS parameter. 


What is max_connect_errors parameter ?

This parameter indicates how many connection errors are possible before the server blocks a host. If more than max_connect_errors successive connection requests from a host are interrupted without a successful connection, the server blocks that host from further connections. The default value is 100 and can be tuned to your security requirements and environment.

For example, if max_connect_errors=5000, after 5,000 connection requests from Host X are interrupted you get an error like the following:

Host X is blocked because of many connection errors ()

You can simply Unblock the host using the following command:

mysql> flush hosts;
mysql> show global variables like 'max_connect_errors';

+| Variable_name      | Value |
+--------------------+-------+
| max_connect_errors | 5000|
+--------------------+-------+

1 row in set (0.00 sec)

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AWS RDS MySQL Error 1227 - Fix it Now ?


This article covers how to fix AWS RDS MySQL Error 1227 for our customers. In order to fix this issue, you’ll need to leverage DB parameter groups. To modify parameter values in a customer-created DB parameter group, you can’t change the parameter values in a default DB parameter group. Changes to parameters in a customer-created DB parameter group are applied to all DB instances that are associated with the DB parameter group.

To modify a DB parameter group, use the AWS CLI modify-db-parameter-group command with the following required parameters:

--db-parameter-group-name
--parameters

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AWS ERROR 2003 (HY000): Can't connect to MySQL server - Fix it Now ?


This article covers methods to tackle AWS "ERROR 2003 (HY000): Can't connect to MySQL server" for our customers.

You can easily fix this issue by adding the public ip address of my EC2 server to the DB security group default policy.

You can create a new security group with the corresponding IP range/subnet of your EC2 instances(s). You can use the exact IP(s), or use your VPC's subnet(s) as the range.

Once created, you can right click your RDS instance in the management console and select 'Modify'. From there, you can change the associated security groups.

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mysqldump error 1194 table is marked as crashed - Best Fixes ?


This article covers methods to resolve the mysqldump error 1194 for our customers. Generally database administrators use MySQL tables to store some important files along with their professional data or records. Though users store their important data but they are unaware of the situation that they can also lose their important data some day when the database gets corrupt or damaged. 

When MySQL database gets corrupted then it displays several error messages, one such error is "ERROR 1194 (HY000): Table 'table_name' is marked as crashed and should be repaired". And this error is very annoying so its very important to fix MySQL error 1194 as soon as you can.


Main causes of MySQL Error 1194:

  • Due to sudden system shutdown.
  • Virus/malware infection.
  • File system corruption after the newly installed program like hardware or software.

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MySQL dump error 'illegal mix of collations' - Fix it Now ?


This article covers methods to resolve MySQL dump error 'illegal mix of collations'. 

You should set both your table encoding and connection encoding to UTF-8:

ALTER TABLE keywords CHARACTER SET UTF8; -- run once

and

SET NAMES 'UTF8';
SET CHARACTER SET 'UTF8';

You can try to run SHOW CREATE TABLE my_table; and see which column was not converted or just fix incorrect character set on problematic column with query below (change varchar length and CHARSET and COLLATE according to your needs):

ALTER TABLE `my_table` CHANGE `my_column` `my_column` VARCHAR(10) CHARSET utf8 
COLLATE utf8_general_ci NULL;

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AWS MySQL error 1419 - Fix it Now ?


This article covers methods to resolve AWS MySQL error 1419. When automated backup is enabled for a MySQL DB instance, it also enables binary logging.

You might receive the following error message when creating a trigger: "ERROR 1419 (HY000): You do not have the SUPER privilege and binary logging is enabled (you might want to use the less safe log_bin_trust_function_creators variable)".

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AWS MySQL error 10060 – Can't connect to MySQL server ?


This article covers methods to resolve AWS MySQL error 10060. This error is a result of the inbound connection rule set on your DB instance.

For each RDS database instance we create, there are Inbound & Outbound connection-security groups.

In AWS RDS console, under 'Databases', click on the 'DB Identifier' of your RDS instance. Then in the 'Security group rules' section, click on 'Inbound' type security group and edit the inbound rule to allow appropriate inbound connections.

You get 3 options here, under 'source' column:

  • Custom.
  • Anywhere (Allows connections from any IP. Not recommended for production.).
  • My IP (Automatically detects your machine's IP).

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mysqldump error 1146 table doesn't exist – Fix it Now ?


This article covers methods to resolve mysqldump: Got error: 1146: Table doesn't exist. To fix this error, you can simply save the database and dump it with innodb_force_recovery option. Most InnoDB corruptions are hardware-related. Corrupted page writes can be caused by power failures or bad memory. The issue also can be caused by using network-attached storage (NAS) and allocating InnoDB databases on it.

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mysqldump error "can't create/write to file" - Fix it Now ?


This article covers to fix mysqldump error "can't create/write to file" for our customers. This error can be as a result of lack of space in your /tmp keeping the file from being created. It may also be the result of a permissions error or configuration error.


We recommend restarting the service to clear any excessive temporary files:

$ /etc/init.d/mysqld restart

If that doesn't improve the situation, we recommend reviewing your configuration file and permissions, particularly if you are using SE Linux:

$ cat /etc/my.cnf | grep tmpdir
$ ls /var/tmp

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WHMCS error code 1013 - Fix it Now ?


This article covers WHMCS error code 1013. Basically, this error happens when the external_id entry is missing in psa.clients MySQL table. If the issue appears on WHMCS integrated with Plesk Multi Server, this database update should be done on the management node side.

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MySQLdump: Got error: 1044 when selecting the database - Fix it Now ?


This article covers methods to resolve MySQLdump: Got error: 1044 when selecting the database. 

When this error happens, you will get an error message such as this:

mysqldump: Got error: 1044: Access denied for user ‘root’@’localhost’ to database ‘information_schema’ when using LOCK TABLES


To fix this MySQLdump error: 

1. You can pass the –single-transaction option to mysqldump command:

$ mysqldump --single-transaction -u user -p DBNAME > backup.sql

2. Also, you can simply grant LOCK TABLES to your user:

$ mysql -u root -p

And type:

mysql> GRANT SELECT,LOCK TABLES ON DBNAME.* TO 'username'@'localhost';

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MySQLdump: got error :1049 :unknown database - Fix it Now ?


This article covers the best method to fix the MySQL database error, "MySQLdump: got error :1049 :unknown database".

Generally, this error happens while performing cPanel backups and it simply indicates that the database does not exist in MySQL.


How to fix mysqldump unknown database when selecting the database?

In cases where this error occurs when you specify the password on the command line with -p flag and there is a space between -p and password.

For example, if you want to dump the database named wpdb using the user "root" and password "your-password".

Fix this error, by specifying the password with no space after -p switch as shown below:

mysqldump -u root -pyour-password wpdb > wpdb_backup.sql

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Install Joomla in CloudPanel - Step by Step Process ?


This article covers how to Install Joomla in CloudPanel control Panel. Basically, Joomla  is a free and open-source content management system for publishing web content on websites.


Step by Step how to setup Joomla 3.9 with CloudPanel:

1. Login via SSH to the server e.g. with john-ssh and go to the users tmp directory:

$ cd ~/tmp

2. Download and extract the latest Joomla 3.9 version.

$ mkdir ~/tmp/joomla-3.9 && curl -sL https://downloads.joomla.org/cms/joomla3/3-9-25/Joomla_3-9-25-Stable-Full_Package.tar.gz | tar xfz - -C ~/tmp/joomla-3.9/

3. Move files to the htdocs directory of the domain:

$ cp -R joomla-3.9/* /home/cloudpanel/htdocs/www.domain.com/

4. Reset permissions.

$ cd /home/cloudpanel/htdocs/
$ clpctl system:permissions:reset www.domain.com 775

5. Clean up the tmp directory.

rm -rf ~/tmp/*

6. Open your domain in the browser and go through the installation wizard.

7. Done! Joomla 3.9 is now installed.

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PHPMyAdmin import database timeout - Fix it Now ?


This article covers methods to fix PHPMyAdmin import database timeout error. This error happens because of a huge file and the restoration process fails with timeout.


To resolve this error, 

1. Login to the server over SSH.

2. Create the file config.inc.php.

For Plesk Onyx and Plesk Obsidian below 18.0.30:

# cp -p /usr/local/psa/admin/htdocs/domains/databases/phpMyAdmin/libraries/config.default.php /usr/local/psa/admin/htdocs/domains/databases/phpMyAdmin/config.inc.php

For Plesk Obsidian 18.0.30 and above:

# cp -p /usr/local/psa/phpMyAdmin/libraries/config.default.php /usr/local/psa/phpMyAdmin/config.inc.php

3. Increase the value of $cfg['ExecTimeLimit'] in config.inc.php created on step 2:

$cfg['ExecTimeLimit'] = 3600;

4. Increase the settings in /etc/sw-cp-server/config to avoid '504 Gateway Timeout' error:

fastcgi_read_timeout 3600;
fastcgi_send_timeout 3600;

5. Restart sw-cp-server:

$ service sw-cp-server restart

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Database import hangs in Plesk - Fix it Now ?


This article covers methods to resolve Database importing hangs in Plesk with error reading communication packets. Generally, the database import task in Plesk fails due to non-optimized client databases.

The solution to this Plesk error is to simply optimize the databases.

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Install PHP 8 on Debian 10 / Debian 9 - Step by Step Process ?


This article covers how to install PHP 8 on any Linux distribution.


To install Apache with PHP 8 module:

$ sudo apt install apache2 libapache2-mod-php8.0 

After successful installation, restart Apache service to reload newly installed modules:

$ sudo systemctl restart apache2 


To check loaded PHP modules use the command:

$ php -m

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Nagios mysql_error out of range value for column - Fix it now ?


This article covers Nagios error, mysql_error out of range value for column which is evident in the /var/log/messages file on the Nagios XI server.

To resolve this issue you will need to define the SQL Mode in the MySQL / MariaDB my.cnf configuration file:

1. Locate the [mysqld] section and check to see if there is an sql_mode already defined:

[mysqld]
# Recommended in standard MySQL setup
sql_mode=NO_ENGINE_SUBSTITUTION,STRICT_TRANS_TABLES

2. If the sql_mode= line already exists you will need to replace it with the following. 

If the line does not exist you will need to add the following line:

[mysqld]
sql_mode=""

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Can't connect to mysql error 111 - Fix this error now ?


This article covers methods to fix mysql error, 'Can't connect to mysql error 111' on Linux machine for our customers.
This can happen when there was a host IP change. 

This issue can prevent connection to the database.
As it turned out if you do come accross this look in /etc/my.cnf, there is a line:

bind-address = ip.add.ress

This may be the old address for the server and this will stop connections, change this to your new address and restart MySQL/MariaDB and you should be good again.

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SQL Server Error 9002 - Fix it now


This article covers methods to resolve SQL Server Error 9002 for our customers. SQL Server Error 9002 happens when the SQL Transaction Log file becomes full or indicated the database is running out of space. A transaction log file increases until the log file utilizes all the available space in disk. A quick fix is to create more space for log file.


To Fix SQL Server Error 9002:


1. Backup Transaction Log File

Incase, SQL database that you are using is full or out of space, you should free the space. For this purpose, it is needed to create a backup of transaction log file immediately. Once the backup is created, the transaction log is truncated. If you do not take back up of log files, you can also use full or Bulk-Logged Recovery model to simple recovery model.


2. Free Disk Space

Generally, the transaction Log file is saved on the disk drive. So, you can free the disk space which contains Log file by deleting or moving other files on order to create some new space in the drive. The free space on disk will allow users to perform other task and resolve SQL Error Log 9002 The Transaction Log for Database is Full.


3. Move Log File to a Different Disk

If you are not able to free the space on a disk drive, then another option is to transfer the log file into a different disk. Make sure another disk in which you are going to transfer your log file, has enough space.

i. Execute sp_detach_db command to detach the database.

ii. Transfer the transaction log files to another disk.

iii. Now, attach the SQL database by running sp_attach_db command.


4. Enlarge Log File

If the sufficient space is available on the disk then you should increase the size of your log file. Because, the maximum size for a log file is considered as 2 TB per .ldf file.


To enlarge log file, there is an Autogrow option but if it is disabled, then you need to manually increase the log file size.

i. To increase log file size, you need to use the MODIFY FILE clause in ALTER DATABASE statement. Then define the particular SIZE and MAXSIZE.

ii. You can also add the log file to the specific SQL database. For this, use ADD FILE clause in ALTER DATABASE statement.

Then, add an additional .ldf file which allows to increase the log file.

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Recover orphan innodb database from ibd file - How to perform this task


This article covers how to recover the orphan InnoDB database from the ibd file. 


Orphan InnoDB database incident mostly happened when:

1 – user accidentally remove ibdata1 file. (mostly in /var/lib/mysql/ibdata1).

2 – ibdata file courrupted.


To Recover Orphaned InnoDB Tables:

1. Restart the MySQL service to recreate ibdata1, then take a backup of your database folder.

2. Login to MySQL.

3. Create a dummy database with the same name. Then, create a dummy table with the same name as the corrupted one (don’t mind the table structure for now).

4. Stop the MySQL service, copy the .frm file from the backup you took to replace the .frm file.

5. Start MySQL and have a look at the structure of your table - it should now be in place! However, don’t get too happy yet.

6. Issue a SHOW CREATE TABLE statement and copy its contents, then create the table with them.

7. Stop MySQL, copy the .ibd file from the backup directory to /var/lib/database_name and replace the existing .ibd file from the dummy table.

8. Now it’s time for Percona’s tools to shine - download and install the Percona Data Recovery Tool for InnoDB , then run the following (here -o represents the full location of your ibdata1 file, -f represents the full location of your .ibd file, -d represents the database name and -t represents your table name):

ibdconnect -o /var/lib/mysql/ibdata1 -f /var/lib/mysql/database_name/table_name.ibd -d database_name -t table_name

9. Now, run a checksum check against InnoDB - make sure you get no error messages (you might need to run this tool several times):

innochecksum /var/lib/mysql/ibdata1

10. Finally, you should be good to go - simply start MySQL.

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Event Data getting Stale in Nagios - Resolve it Now


This article covers methods to fix Event Data getting Stale in Nagios. Basically, you will see the causes for event data getting stale in Nagios. There is a known bug relating to event data in versions 2009R1.4B-2011R1.1.

This bug has been patched and will be available in releases later than the versions posted above, but if you're experiencing this error, and/or the nagios service is taking an excessively long time to start, you may have a corrupted mysql table that needs repair.


To fix this Nagios error:

1. Stop the following services:

$ service nagios stop
$ service ndo2db stop
$ service mysqld stop

2. Run the repair script for mysql tables:

/usr/local/nagiosxi/scripts/repairmysql.sh nagios

3. Unzip and copy the the following dbmaint file to /usr/local/nagiosxi/cron/. This will overwrite the previous version.

$ cd /tmp
$ wget http://assets.nagios.com/downloads/nagiosxi/patches/dbmaint.zip
$ unzip dbmaint.zip
$ chmod +x dbmaint.php
$ cp dbmaint.php /usr/local/nagiosxi/cron

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Disable database UTF8 connectivity on Nagios - How to do it


This article covers how to configure disable UTF8 connectivity to the MySQL/MariaDB databases. By default Nagios XI uses UTF8 however sometimes this needs to be disabled to allow MySQL / MariaDB to define the connectivity method.

This configuration ensures that characters from different languages can be correctly stored and retrieved in the databases.


The Nagios XI Configuration Directive

The following configuration directive was added in Nagios XI 5.4.13:

$cfg['db_conn_utf8'] = 0;

 To determine if you currently have that directive enabled, establish a terminal session to your Nagios XI server as the root user and execute the following command:

$ grep db_conn_utf8 /usr/local/nagiosxi/html/config.inc.php

 If the grep command produces NO output then the directive does not exist in your configuration and it needs to be added. This can be added with the following command:

$ printf "\n\$cfg['db_conn_utf8'] = 0;\n" >> /usr/local/nagiosxi/html/config.inc.php

 

If the grep command produced output then it can be changed with the following command (sets it to 0):

$sed -i "s/db_conn_utf8'\] =.*/db_conn_utf8'\] = 0;/g" /usr/local/nagiosxi/html/config.inc.php

Defining the directive to 0 will resolve the issue you for garbled or ??? characters.


If you wanted to change it to 1 then use the following command:

$sed -i "s/db_conn_utf8'\] =.*/db_conn_utf8'\] = 1;/g" /usr/local/nagiosxi/html/config.inc.php

 

The change takes effect immediately.

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Unable to add MySQL database in Plesk Customer Panel - Fix it now


This article covers how to fix issues that make it unable to add MySQL database in Plesk customer panel.


To resolve Cannot add MySQL database in Plesk Customer Panel:

1. Log in to Plesk and apply one of the following:

2. Enable Database server selection directive in Service Plans > Default > Permissions > Show more available permissions and press Update & Sync.

3. Switch MySQL default database server from None to localhost:3306 in Service Plans > Default > Hosting Parameters > Default Database Server and press Update & Sync.


Note:  it is also applicable to cases when Amazon RDS extension is installed. 

If it is needed to provide customer with the ability to select Amazon server, enable "database server selection" option.


How do I add a database to my Plesk Panel?

How to Create a New Database or Database User in the Plesk Control Panel

1. Log into your Control Panel.

2. Click on Databases.

3. Click on the Add New Database icon.

4. Next to Database Name enter the name you want to use.

For Type, choose either Microsoft SQL Server or MySQL (DNN uses the Microsoft SQL Server.).

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Add MySQL database in Websitepanel and fix common errors


This article covers add MySQL database in Websitepanel and fix a common errors related to this task.

A database interface allows you to create and manage the existing MySQL databases. If you are creating a PHP based application or any application that uses a database, then you will need to create a database and a database user to access this database.


To create a MySQL database in WebsitePanel:

1. Click on the plan you want to add a MySQL database to.

2. Then click Databases.

3. Click MySQL.

4. Click Create Database.

5. Enter a name for your database.

6. Click Save.

7. You can click on the database you just added to edit it.

8. You can view existing users or delete or backup the database.

9. Click Save when you are finished


Success! You can view your added databases and see how many allowed databases you've used.

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Add MySQL Service on WebsitePanel - Do it now


This article covers how to add MySQL service in websitepanel. 

WebsitePanel began as DotNetPanel, which its creators made only for the Windows web technology platform as a Windows hosting panel.


To add MySQL Service on WebsitePanel, follow the steps provided below:

1. Download the installation file from here. Choose to skip registration and start the download.

2. Run the .msi file to start the installation. Click “Next” when prompted.

3. Select the product to upgrade, then click “Next“.

4. Click “Execute” to apply the update.

5. Click “Next” to configure the product.

6. If you already have a database within your server, the installer will check and update your database. Type in the correct password and then press “Check“, then press “Next” when the connection is successful.

7. Click “Execute” to apply the configuration, then “Next” to finish this part of the installation.

8. Click “Next” to proceed.

9. The installation is completed, click “Finish” to continue.

10. This shows the product you have installed, you can close the installer here or click “Add…” to install additional products such as MySQL Server ver 5.7

11. Select the “CONFIGURATION” tab and click “Servers” from the drop-down list.

12. Next, click on “My Server“, scroll down and search for “MySQL 5” tab (since we have installed MySQL 5.5 by default).

13. Click on the small “Add” besides the “MySQL 5” tab to add MySQL service to WebsitePanel.

14. From the drop-down list, choose the version of MySQL that had been installed (MySQL Server 5.5 in our case), then click "Add Service".

15. You will see a message saying that installation of  MySQL Connector/Net is required, follow the instructions and download the installer.

16. Run the downloaded installer but DO NOT choose “Typical Installation“, choose “Custom Installation” instead and remove the entire “Web Providers” section from your installation as it will give a nasty error after installation. Proceed with the installation by clicking “Next” and then “Install“.

17. Return to the MySQL Service Properties page, fill in the password with the password used to login to MySQL root account and then click “Update” at the bottom of the page. If the password entered is correct, the MySQL service will be successfully added to the list of server services.

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Install Drupal with Docker Compose


This article covers how to install Drupal with Docker Compose. Basically, installation process of Drupal can be simplified with the use of tools like Docker and Docker Compose. Docker Compose can be used to create a Drupal installation with an Nginx web server. 


Drupal and Docker needs the following to work:

1. HTTP Server with PHP: We can either use Apache with PHP or Nginx with PHP. I'm going to demonstrate building the Docker using Apache with PHP. A Drupal docker can also have services like SSH (for drush alias to work) and some important utilities like vim

2. SQL Server: Choose your favourite SQL Service (MySQL or PostGRESQL or SQLite). I'm going to be using a MySQL docker. The idea behind using a separate docker for SQL is so that you have a freedom to choose an internal SQL service or an external SQL Services like Amazon RDS without affecting your Drupal environment.


The need to Use Docker to Run Drupal:

Using the Drupal and PostgreSQL images from Docker Hub offers the following benefits:

1. The configuration of the software has been done for you, which means that you don’t need to follow a step-by-step process for each application to get them running on your system.

2. Updating your software is as simple as downloading the latest images from Docker Hub.

3. Images and containers are self-contained, which means that they are easy to clean up if you decide to remove them.


How to Set Up Drupal ?

1. Create a new directory in your home folder called my_drupal and cd into it:

mkdir ~/my_drupal/

cd ~/my_drupal/

2. Create a file named docker-compose.yml in this folder and add the following contents. Set your own password for the POSTGRES_PASSWORD option.

3. From the my_drupal directory, start your Docker containers:

docker-compose up -d

4. The Docker containers will take a minute or two to start up Drupal and PostgreSQL. Afterwards, you can visit your Linode’s IP address in your web browser .

5. On the Set up database page, select PostgreSQL as the Database type and enter the following values:

Database name: postgres

Database username: postgres

Database password: The password you set in the docker-compose.yml file

Host (under Advanced Options): postgres

6. When creating your Drupal user, be sure to enter a password that is different from your PostgreSQL password.

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MySQL crash – Causes Recovery and Prevention methods


This article covers methods to fix and prevent MySQL downtime. Basically, many issues such as resource limits, #database table errors, file system errors, and so on, can lead to a MySQL crash.


To fix MySQL errors in cPanel?

You can also restart the MySQL service from WHM.

1. Login to WHM.

2. Navigate to Restart Services.

3. Now you can restart the MySQL service by clicking the icon “SQL Server(MySQL)”.


To use mysqlcheck, follow these steps:

1. As the root user, type the following command: cd /var/lib/mysql.

2. Replace the database with the name of the database that you want to check.

3. Mysqlcheck checks the specified database and tables.


How do I know if MySQL is running?

We check the status with the service mysql status command. We use the mysqladmin tool to check if MySQL server is running. 

The -u option specifies the user which pings the server. 

The -p option is a password for the user.


What does repair table do MySQL?

REPAIR TABLE repairs a possibly corrupted table, for certain storage engines only. 

This statement requires SELECT and INSERT privileges for the table. Although normally you should never have to run REPAIR TABLE , if disaster strikes, this statement is very likely to get back all your data from a MyISAM table.


What causes MySQL #tables to crash?

The major cause of the database corruption is the lack of free disk space on the server.

Other possible causes of MySQL table crashes include operating system problems, power failures, hardware issues, unexpected MySQL server termination, data corruption due to external programs, and so on.


To access your #MySQL database in Linux, please follow these steps:

1. Log into your Linux web server via Secure Shell.

2. Open the MySQL client program on the server in the /usr/bin directory.

3. Type in the following syntax to access your database: $ mysql -h {hostname} -u username -p {databasename} Password: {your password}

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Methods to secure database server - Best Practices


This article covers different methods to secure a Database Server. Database security helps: Company's block attacks, including ransomware and breached firewalls, which in turn keeps sensitive information safe. It Prevent malware or viral infections which can corrupt data, bring down a network, and spread to all end point devices.


SQL injection vulnerabilities occur when application code contains dynamic database queries which directly include user supplied input. 

This is a devastating form of attack and BSI Penetration Testers regularly find vulnerable applications that allow complete authentication bypass and extraction of the entire database.

SQL injection, also known as SQLI, is a common attack vector that uses malicious SQL code for backend database manipulation to access information that was not intended to be displayed. 

This information may include any number of items, including sensitive company data, user lists or private customer details.


Some known database security issues:

Security risks to database systems include,

1. Data corruption and/or loss caused by the entry of invalid data or commands

2. Mistakes in database or system administration processes, sabotage/criminal damage and so on.


There are numerous types of databases and many different ways to hack them, but most hackers will either try to crack the database root password or run a known database exploit. 

If you're comfortable with SQL statements and understand database basics, you can hack a database.


Practices for Database Security:

1. Protect Against Attacks With a Database Proxy.

2. Set Up Auditing and Robust Logging.

3. Practice Stringent User Account Management.

4. Keep Your Database Software and OS Up-to-Date.

5. Encrypt Sensitive Data in Your app, in Transit, and at Rest.

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Delete Data in SQL using DELETE statement - How to use it


This article covers how to Delete Data in SQL using the DELETE statement. 

The SQL DELETE Query is used to delete the existing records from a table.

You can use the WHERE clause with a DELETE query to delete the selected rows, otherwise all the records would be deleted.


In Structured Query Language, more commonly known as SQL, the DELETE statement is one of the most powerful operations available to users. 

DELETE operations irreversibly delete one or more rows of data from a database table. 

Being such a fundamental aspect of data management, it's important for SQL users to understand how the DELETE statement works.


The basic syntax of the DELETE query with the WHERE clause is as follows:

DELETE FROM table_name
WHERE [condition];

You can combine N number of conditions using AND or OR operators.


Note: Be careful when deleting records in a table! Notice the WHERE clause in the DELETE statement. 

The WHERE clause specifies which record(s) should be deleted. If you omit the WHERE clause, all records in the table will be deleted!


To Delete All Records:

It is possible to delete all rows in a table without deleting the table. This means that the table structure, attributes, and indexes will be intact:

DELETE FROM table_name;


DROP is used to delete a whole database or just a table. The DROP statement destroys the objects like an existing database, table, index, or view. A DROP statement in SQL removes a component from a relational database management system (RDBMS).

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Migrate database from MySQL to PostgreSQL using pgLoader


This article covers how to migrate a database using pgLoader with a single #command.
PostgreSQL, also known as “Postgres,” is an open-source relational database management system (RDBMS).
It has seen a drastic growth in popularity in recent years, with many developers and companies migrating their data to Postgres from other database solutions.
The prospect of migrating a database can be intimidating, especially when migrating from one database management system to another.

Facts about pgLoader:
1. pgLoader is an open-source #database migration tool that aims to simplify the process of migrating to #PostgreSQL.
2. It supports #migrations from several file types and RBDMSs — including #MySQL and SQLite — to PostgreSQL.
3. #pgLoader is a flexible tool that can perform a database migration in a single command.
4. With a few configuration tweaks, it can migrate an entire database from one physical machine to another using a secure SSL/TLS connection.

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Phpmyadmin keeps asking for password


This article will guide you on tips to resolve phpMyAdmin error when it keeps asking for a password to login.

This #phpMyAdmin problem can arise due to many different reasons that include browser cache issues, using an incorrect password, drive being full, and so on. 

To fix this problem, you need to reset the cPanel password as follows:

1. Login to WHM at https://<your vps ip>:20871) as user root, using the server's root password.

2. Go to 'Home >> Account Information >> List Accounts'.

3. Click on the + sign near the domain for which you want to change the cPanel password. 4. You can see an option there to change the password.

5. Select the option "Sync #Mysql password with account password" and change password.

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MySQL error 1819 HY000


This article will guide you on how to resolve MySQL error 1819 (HY000) which happens when creating a MySQL user with a relatively weak password.  

Because of validate_password_policy we applied on database, we are not able to change and assign simple or weak passwords it don't allow to to change password and came up with error.

To resolve this error, We can check validate_password_policy applied on machine. Also you can change your password under Low policy.


Solution to MySQL Error Your Password does not satisfy the Current Policy Requirements:

1. Set the Password_policy value to low, next is setting the same Password_Policy value in my.cnf file and the last is uninstalling the plugin that is used for validating password.

2. Set the Password_Policy to low:

Default Password level of plugin can be changed at runtime or using config file. 

To do this, default authentication plugin has to be checked:

SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'default authentication plugin';

3. For checking the current variables for validating the password you should run the following command:

SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'validate_password%';

4. Validate_password is a variable that is used to inform the server about the validate_password plugin. 

This plugin tests the passwords and improve security. 

Following output will be displayed, if you run the above command:

mysql> SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'validate_password%';

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InnoDB vs MyISAM Performance


This article will guide you on the performance of InnoDB and MyISAM. MyISAM will out-perform InnoDB on large #tables that require vastly more read activity versus write activity. MyISAM's readabilities outshine InnoDB because locking the entire table is quicker than figuring out which rows are locked in the table.

InnoDB is better option while you are dealing with larger #database because it supports transactions, volume while MyISAM is suitable for small project. 

InnoDB and MYISAM , are storage engines for MySQL . 


InnoDB and #MYISAM differ on their locking implementation: 

i. #InnoDB locks the particular row in the table, and MyISAM locks the entire MySQL table.

ii. As InnoDB supports row-level locking which means inserting and updating is much faster as compared with MyISAM.


Which storage engine is best in #MySQL:

1. InnoDB: The default option in MySQL 5.7, InnoDB is a robust storage engine that offers:

2. MyISAM: The functionality that sets MyISAM apart is its capability for:

3. NDB (or NDBCLUSTER): If a clustered environment is where your database will be working, NDB is the storage engine of choice.

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MySQL error log cPanel


This article will guide you on more information about MySQL error logs and methods to resolve its errors. 

You will learn how to fix MySQL errors, crashes and other unexpected behavior from #MySQL. 

To view mysql error logs:

1. edit /etc/my.cnf [mysqld] log=/tmp/mysql.log.

2. restart the computer or the mysqld service service mysqld restart.

3. open phpmyadmin/any application that uses mysql/mysql console and run a query.

4. cat /tmp/mysql.log ( you should see the query ).

To Clear cPanel Error Log:

1. Login to your server using an #SSH client.

2. To clear the #Apache #errors, type the following and press Enter. cat /dev/null> /usr/local/apache/logs/error_log.

3. To delete PHP error_log files, type the following and press Enter. find /home -type f -name error_log -delete.

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Deploy PHP application with Kubernetes on Ubuntu


This article will guide you on steps to deploy #PHP application with Kubernetes on #Ubuntu. 

Kubernetes, at its basic level, is a system for running and coordinating containerized applications across a cluster of machines. 

It is a platform designed to completely manage the life cycle of containerized applications and services using methods that provide predictability, scalability, and high availability.

#Kubernetes really shines when your #application consists of multiple services running in different containers.

Kubernetes, also referred to as K8s, is an open source system used to manage Linux Containers across private, public and hybrid cloud environments. 

In other words, Kubernetes can be used to manage microservice architectures and is deployable on most cloud providers.

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Zabbix Postgres vs MySQL


This article will help you give you more informations about #Zabbix Postgres vs MySQL and the criteria to choose between them. 

PostgreSQL is an Object Relational #Database Management System (#ORDBMS) whereas MySQL is a community driven DBMS system. PostgreSQL support modern applications feature like #JSON, XML etc. while MySQL only supports JSON.

PostgreSQL supports Materialized Views whereas #MySQL doesn't supports Materialized Views.

#PostgreSQL is known to be faster while handling massive data sets, complicated queries, and read-write operations. 

Meanwhile, MySQL is known to be faster with read-only commands.

Advantages Of Using MySQL:

1. It's Easy To Use.

2. Support Is Readily Available Whenever Necessary.

3. It's Open-Source.

4. It's Incredibly Inexpensive.

5. It's An Industry Standard.

6. It's Got A Few Stability Issues.

7. It Suffers From Relatively Poor Performance Scaling.

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MySQL is not running


This article will guide you on methods to resolve MySQL #error 'MySQL is not running'. Basically, this MySQL error occurs due to many reasons that include stopping MySQL improperly, tables crashing and so on. 

Both MySQL and #Microsoft SQL Server (MSSQL) are widely used enterprise database systems. MySQL is an open-source relational #database management system (RDBMS), while MSSQL Server is a Microsoft-developed RDBMS. 

Enterprises can choose between multiple #MSSQL Server editions to suit their individual needs and budgets.

Why #MySQL is not opening?

1. You can also check the MySQL service is running in background or not. 

2. To do that open Task manager ( Press CTRL + SHIFT + ESC simultaneously ) and look for mysqld service in background process section. 

3. If it isn't listed there then the service is stopped or disabled.

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Galera cluster asynchronous replication


This article will guide you on steps to perform Galera cluster asynchronous replication for #MySQL.  Galera Cluster for MySQL is a true Multi-Master Cluster based on synchronous replication. It's an easy-to-use, high-availability solution, which provides high system up-time, no data loss and scalability for future growth.

To do you get a Galera Cluster:

1. Create a #Cloud Server. First, log in to your Cloud Server via an SSH tool such as putty.

2. Install #MariaDB Server on All Servers.

3. Configure Each Server in the #Cluster.

4. Initialize the Galera Cluster.

5. Test Galera Cluster #Replication.

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Configure and Use Microsoft SQL Server Management Studio


This article will guide you on how to setup SQL server management studio. SQL Server Management Studio is a free #Windows #application to configure, manage, and administer Microsoft SQL Server (#MSSQL). 

SSMS is available only as a 32-bit application for Windows.

To get SQL Server Management Studio:

1. Go To Start Menu>Programs>Microsoft SQL Server Tools 18> Microsoft #SSMS 18. 

2. Below 'Connect to Server' screen will appear. 

3. Server Name defaults to the name selected while installing MS SQL server. 

4. Server type: This is an option to select one out of four available MS SQL services option.

To Enable remote connections to your SQL Server:

i. Open #SQL Server Management Studio.

ii. Right-click your server's name and select Properties.

iii. Tick the checkbox Allow remote connections to this server.

iv. Select OK.

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cPanel MySQL error query PHP


This article will guide you on methods to fix cPanel MySQL #error query #PHP. Generally, the MySQL error query PHP is mainly related to the PHP file. This can be either caused due to incorrect database details in the PHP file or incorrect permissions or incorrect ownership in files. 

To fix this issue:

1. Update to the latest version of #MySQL to resolve the issue. 

For some, this may require removing yum version locks on the MariaDB packages.

If packages are locked for #MariaDB clear the lock with the below command:

yum versionlock clear

Otherwise, proceed with the updates for MariaDB:

yum upgrade MariaDB-*

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Wildcards in SQL Server


This article will guide to use #Wildcards in #SQL server. Also you will learn how to use and escape wildcards SQL-based databases. 

To use a wildcard character within a pattern: Open your #query in Design view. In the Criteria row of the field that you want to use, type the #operator Like in front of your criteria. Replace one or more characters in the criteria with a wildcard character.

i. The wildcard is an advanced search technique that can be used to maximize your search results in library databases. 

ii. Wildcards are used in search terms to represent one or more other characters. 

iii. The two most commonly used wildcards are: An asterisk (*) may be used to specify any number of #characters.

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SQL server error 1326 Steps to fix it


This article will guide you on methods to resolve SQL server error 1326 which occurs due to the IIS Service not having any rights to use the named pipe.

If the SQL server resides on a separate server from IIS, then the IUSR_machinename account needs to be validated on the Windows NT server that SQL resides on.

#SQL #SERVER – Fix : Error : 1326 Cannot connect to #Database Server Error: 40 – Could not open a connection to SQL Server.

Now if SQL Server can be connected perfectly from #local system, but cannot be connected from a remote system, in that case firewall on the server where SQL Server is installed can be issued.

Follow instructions below to fix the issue:

1. Go to control panel >> #Firewall Settings >> Add SQL Server’s Port to Exception List.

2. Now try to connect to SQL Server again. It will allow you to connect to the server successfully.

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Microsoft SQL server error 18470 How to fix it


This article will guide you on the different factors that causes SQL server error: 18470 and also how to fix this #error.

In SQL Server Configuration Manager, in the left pane, click SQL Server Services. In the results pane, right-click SQL Server (#MSSQLServer) or a named instance, and then click Start, Stop, Pause, Resume, or Restart.

User gets the #Microsoft SQL Server Error: 18470. This may happen if the SA (System Administrator) user account is disabled in #SQL Server. It can be verified by trying to log in to SQL Server Management Studio (#SSMS) using the SA account. In the Login Properties screen, select Status on the left side.

To Microsoft SQL Server Error 18456:

1. Log In with Remote Desktop.

2. Run Microsoft SQL Server Management.

3. Checking the Server Authentication Mode.

4. Restart the SQL Service.

5. Checking SQL User Permissions.

6. Mapping the User to the #Database.

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Executing queries from the MySQL Command Line


This article will guide you on how to run queries from the 3MySQL command line. The MySQL #Command Line Tool is a useful way to run #queries from the command line. It’s easy to run select queries and display the results in either a horizontal or vertical format, and the queries run are kept in a history file which you can navigate through. 

If you don't want to run a particular query after all you can use the c command to clear it.

The most common way to get a list of the MySQL #databases is by using the mysql client to connect to the MySQL server and run the SHOW DATABASES command. If you haven't set a password for your MySQL user you can omit the -p switch.

To Connect to a MySQL Database:

1. Click Services tab.

2. Expand the Drivers node from the Database Explorer.

3. Enter User Name and Password.

4. Click OK to accept the credentials.

5. Click OK to accept the default schema.

6. Right-click the MySQL Database #URL in the Services window.

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New files of configuration for Apache error in Plesk


This article will guide you on methods to fix the Plesk error : new files of configuration for Apache.
The causes of this Plesk error:
1. Mailman package is not installed.
2. Database related error.
3. PHP memory issue.
To fix this Plesk issue:
Mailman package is not installed
When you try to reconfigure the domain, you will get the following error.
# /usr/local/psa/admin/sbin/httpdmng --reconfigure-all
No valid mailman bindir detected
So, in this case it is clear that the issue is causing because the mailman package is missing.
To fix the issue, you can follow the steps mentioned below.
a) Download and install the mailman package from  http://autoinstall.plesk.com
b) After that remove all entries from the ‘Configurations’ table of the ‘psa’ database.
mysql -uadmin -p`cat /etc/psa/.psa.shadow` psa -e"delete from Configurations"
c) Remove all ‘Include’ records from configuration files and all content from the directory below:
# sed -i /Include/d /usr/local/psa/admin/conf/ip_vhosts_bootstrap.conf&& sed -i /Include/d /usr/local/psa/admin/conf/vhosts_bootstrap.conf&& sed -i /include/d /usr/local/psa/admin/conf/nginx_vhosts_bootstrap.conf&& sed -i /Include/d /usr/local/psa/admin/conf/webmail_horde_bootstrap.conf&& sed -i /Include/d /usr/local/psa/admin/conf/webmail_atmail_bootstrap.conf&& sed -i /Include/d /etc/httpd/conf.d/zz010_psa_httpd.conf&& rm -f /usr/local/psa/admin/conf/generated/*
d) Now you can reconfigure and that will fix the issues.
/usr/local/psa/admin/bin/httpdmng --reconfigure-all
This will resolve the error.

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Improve SQL Server Bulk Data Import Performance


This article will guide you improve #bulk #data #import #performance. The BULK INSERT command is much faster than bcp or the data pump to perform text file import operations, however, the BULK INSERT statement cannot bulk copy data from #SQL Server to a data file. Use the bcp utility instead of DTS when you need to export data from the SQL Server table into a text file.
To Speed up SQL Bulk Insert with #transactions:
1. Declare the variables that store the number of desired items ( @items ), the size of the chunks( @chunk_size ) and the counter of the number of executed inserts( @counter )
2. Open the first transaction and initialize the while loop.

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Steps to create SQL server alias


Steps for Deleting an alias using SQL Server Configuration Manager ?
#SQL aliases are used to give a table, or a column in a table, a temporary name. Aliases are often used to make column names more readable. An alias only exists for the duration of the query.
To find my SQL Server #alias name:
Expand SQL Native client #configuration, and you can find a subfolder Alias. By default, we do not have any alias defined for the SQL Server #instance. In the screenshot, we can see it does not see any items for the Alias. Right-click on Aliases and click on New Alias.
1. Take SQL Server Configuration Manager and go to SQL Server Native #Client Configuration, then click Aliases.
2. We can right-click the alias that we want to delete, and then click Delete.
3. A warning will pop up, we can click on Yes to remove the alias. This removes the SQL Server alias.

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MySQL BLOB Data Type


This article will guide you on how #MySQL #BLOB data type works in storing and displaying images with #PHP on Ubuntu 18.04. A BLOB is a binary large object that can hold a variable amount of data.
A Binary Large OBject (BLOB) is a collection of #binary data stored as a single entity in a database management system. Blobs are typically images, audio or other multimedia objects, though sometimes binary executable code is stored as a blob.
The four BLOB types are #TINYBLOB , #BLOB , #MEDIUMBLOB , and #LONGBLOB . These differ only in the maximum length of the values they can hold. The four TEXT types are TINYTEXT , TEXT , MEDIUMTEXT , and LONGTEXT .
The size of blob in MySQL:
TINYBLOB - Up to 255 bytes - 1 byte
BLOB - Up to 64 Kb - 2 bytes
MEDIUMBLOB - Up to 16 Mb - 3 bytes
LONGBLOB - Up to 4 Gb - 1 Bytes

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Instant File Initialization in SQL server


This article will guide you on how to enable Instant File Initialization (#IFI) in #SQL Server. 

Disk space reservation without initialization is called Instant File Initialization. 

To enable #database instant file initialization:

1. First, go to Start Menu and run secpol.msc to bring up Local #Security #Policy.

2. Expand the Local Policies Folder.

3. Click on User Rights Assignment.

4. Go to the Perform Volume Maintenance Tasks option and double click it.

5. Add your SQL Server Service account, and click OK.

6. Restart your SQL Server services (MUST DO).


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Steps to Back Up And Restore Nagios System


This article will guide you on how to perform #Backup and #Restore of the #Nagios System are important aspects of the #administration and #maintenance of the #system. 

Backups are an important aspect of administration and maintenance of your system. They can easily facilitate the #migration of a Nagios XI #installation between a virtual server and physical server, and the design of a fail-over or #disaster #recovery instance of Nagios XI.

There are three main types of backup: full, incremental, and differential:

1. #Full backup. As the name suggests, this refers to the process of copying everything that is considered important and that must not be lost.

2. #Incremental backup. 

3. #Differential backup.

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Setting up client access over private IP address to MySQL on Compute Engine


This article will guide you on setting up client access over private IP address to #MySQL on #Compute #Engine helps advanced usage of parameters and specific performance needs.

To allow IP to connect to MySQL:

1. Edit MySQL Config File. 1.1 Access mysqld.cnf File. 

2. Set up Firewall to Allow Remote MySQL Connection. While editing the configuration file, you probably observed that the default MySQL port is 3306. 

3. Connect to Remote MySQL #Server. Your remote server is now ready to accept connections.

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Redis as a Cache for MySQL with PHP on Ubuntu


This article will guide you on steps to use #Redis to cache #MySQL data with #PHP on #Ubuntu 20.04.  Redis, which stands for Remote Dictionary Server, is a fast, open-source, in-memory key-value data store for use as a database, cache, message broker, and queue. 

To Connect to Redis through the SQL Gateway:

1. In MySQL Workbench, click to add a new MySQL connection.

2. Name the connection (CData SQL Gateway for Redis).

3. Set the Hostname, Port, and Username parameters to connect to the #SQL Gateway.

4. Click Store in Vault to set and store the password.

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Steps to install MySQL in Docker Container


This article will guide you on the steps to install and configure #MySQL in #Docker #container. MySQL is a well-known open-source relational #database management system and one of the most popular web server solutions. It stores and structures data in a meaningful manner, ensuring easy accessibility. Setting up a database in Docker is simply building a container based on a MySQL #image. 

To Set Up & Configure a MySQL Docker Container:

1. Running a MySQL Docker Container.

2. Installing a MySQL Docker Container.

i. Pull the MySQL Docker Image.

ii. Deploy the MySQL Container.

iii. Connect to the MySQL Docker Container.

3. Configure MySQL Container. Manage #Data Storage.

4. Start, Stop, and Restart MySQL Container.

5. Delete MySQL Container.

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Deploying Kohana PHP application on Debian


This article will guide you on how to deploy Kohana on #Debian. Kohana offers powerful event handling, multiple session drivers, simple database abstraction using #SQL helpers, and libraries that transparently handle external APIs. Its generous BSD license lets developers use and modify the framework to build commercial applications.

The #AppDynamics platform provides full, code-level visibility into the performance of your PHP application built on the Kohana framework. With rapid installation and the most scalable #architecture in the industry, AppDynamics solutions help you deploy your #applications more quickly and with more confidence.

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Deploy Laravel using Nginx on Ubuntu


This guide will help to set up Laravel with #Nginx on #Ubuntu 16.04. Laravel is the most popular, free, and open-source #PHP #framework in the world, known for its expressive and elegant syntax.
To move laravel project from localhost to production server, do:
1. Zip your #laravel app files.
2. Export your app's #database then set it up on your server.
3. After you have uploaded your laravel app files, open the . env file found on the root.
4. That's it!, now check your live #site.

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Set Up Laravel Nginx and MySQL with Docker Compose


This article will guide you on how to set up #Laravel, #Nginx, and #MySQL with #Docker Compose. When using a #LEMP application stack, for example, with PHP, Nginx, MySQL and the Laravel framework, Docker can significantly streamline the setup process.
Docker Compose has further simplified the development process by allowing developers to define their #infrastructure, including application services, #networks, and volumes, in a single file. Docker Compose offers an efficient alternative to running multiple docker container create and docker container run #commands.

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Using Kill Commands In Linux


This article will guide you on how to use Kill #Commands In #Linux. Here, you will learn several ways to #terminate a running process. However, one should exercise caution to prevent incorrectly terminating a #process that should not be killed.
The #kill -9 command sends a SIGKILL signal indicating to a service to shut down immediately. An unresponsive program will ignore a kill command, but it will shut down whenever a kill -9 command is issued.

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Backup, Restore and Migrate a MongoDB database on CentOS 8


MongoDB is highly scalable, using shards. Horizontal scalability is a big plus in most #NoSQL databases. MongoDB is no exception. It is also highly reliable due to its replica sets, and the data is replicated in more nodes asynchronously.

This article will guide you on the steps to perform #backup, #restore and #migrate a #MongoDB #database on #CentOS 8.

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Using Ansible to copy MySQL databases


This article will guide us on how to perform database migration using Ansible as the controller which can help to copy a MySQL database from one remote server to another.

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Xampp MySQL shutdown unexpectedly error


This tutorial will help to fix MySQL shutdown unexpectedly which occurs as a result of server-side errors such as missing configuration, corrupted file, port changes, and improper shutdown.

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Steps to sync two Apache web servers


This article will guide you on how to setup syncing Apache web servers which involves a number of procedures such as installation and configuration of LSyncD, setting up Apache Configuration Replication, and so on.

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SQL error Msg 3266


This article will help you to solve SQL error Msg 3266 which occurs when database backups job fails when the filemark in the backup device cannot be read. 

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Recovering a database from suspect mode in SQL


This article will guide you through the process of repairing  a database which is in Suspect mode in SQL by performing consistency check on database in emergency mode and executing ALLOW DATA LOSS in single user mode.

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Solve SQL server error 7416


Most sql users discover that the logins which they used before suddenly develops server error 7416.

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Solve phpMyAdmin Timeout error 1440 session


We have dealt with numerous cases of MySQL and phpMyAdmin Errors and support request from our customers regarding Databases related errors as part of our Linux Support Services.

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Fix SQL server error 3023


Most databases users experience error 3023 when doing a backup, or altering the database table. It simply means that a backup process is still running in the background and thus any interruption will trigger this error.

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Solve SQL Server error 4064


The SQL Server error 4064 is as a result of the unavailability of a database probably due to dropping of the database thereby becoming not available to the user.

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Solve SQL server error 3729


Recently, we have seen rising cases of SQL related issues which our Server Experts have provided support in solving them.

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Fix Microsoft SQL error 1032


Here at IbmiMedia, we have seen numerous cases of SQL related errors and provide fixes to these kind of issues as part of our Linux Support Services.

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Fix MySQL Error 1292


When the syntax for the data is not entered correctly, an Error 1292 will be triggered in MySQL.

We have helped numerous clients to resolve this error and also solved SQL related issues as part of our Server Support Services.

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How to fix Horde Fatal Error


Fatal Error in Horde Webmail is experienced by most users when they are about logging into their Email.

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Fix MySQL error code 1054


MySQL error code 1054 occurs when you forget to add single quotes while inserting a varchar value or due to any missing column.

Errors in the database of a website can be very frustrating especially if you have got a high traffic website and it leads to loss of customers and money as your they will turn away from your site since this type of errors affects the whole website in general.

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Fix Moodle Error reading from database Bugs


When an incorrect value is entered as the Storage engine value in a MySQL file in a Moodle Learning system, a "Moodle Error reading from the database" is be triggered.

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