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Generate CSR (Certificate Signing Request) in Linux ?

This article covers the process of creating a CSR file in any Linyx system which is very necessary before applying for an SSL certificate from a Certificate Authority(CA). In fact, Certificate Signing Request(CSR) is a block encrypted text which is given to Certificate Authority when applying for SSL Certificate. Generation of Certificate Signing Request(CSR) for Secure Sockets Layer(SSL) is common in Linux on various distributions. 

CSR is generated on the server, it stores information relating to the organization, domain name, country, a city which is to be included in the certificate.  The CSR Certificate can be used on any website whenever it is necessary to encrypt communications. To generate an SSL certificate, CSR certificate has to be generated. To obtain a self-signed SSL Certificate, it is necessary to create CSR, after generating submit it to a certificate authority to acquire an SSL Certificate. 

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Connect Amazon EC2 using putty - Follow these steps

This article covers the step you should follow to connect Amazon EC2 using putty.


How to Generate a PuTTY Private Key (.ppk) File ?

  • Download and install PuTTY.
  • Open the folder that PuTTY was installed to (default path is C: > Program Files > PuTTY).
  • Double-click on the file puttygen.exe.
  • In PuTTY Key Generator, click the Load button and navigate to the folder that contains the private key file (.pem) created during the EC2 configuration process.
  • Click on the PuTTY Private Key Files button in the lower-right corner of the window and select All Files (*.*).
  • Select your private key file (.pem) and click Open.
  • Click OK to close the PuTTYgen Notice pop-up window.
  • In PuTTY Key Generator, make sure Type of key to generate value is set to RSA.
  • Click Save private key and then Yes to close the PuTTYgen Warning pop-up.
  • Navigate to the location you want to store your PuTTY Private Key file (.ppk) and give it a name.
  • Click Save.
  • Close the PuTTY Key Generator window.


What is Amazon EC2 Instance?

1. Amazon EC2 instance is the varying combinations of CPU, memory, storage, and networking capacity that allow you to run your websites.

2. The best part of the Amazon EC2 instance is that it will allow you to scale your resources to the requirements of your target workload.

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SSH Servers Clients and Keys - More about it now

This article covers important information about SSH Servers, Clients and Keys. Use SSH keys for authentication when you are connecting to your server, or even between your servers.

They can greatly simplify and increase the security of your login process. 

When keys are implemented correctly they provide a secure, fast, and easy way of accessing your cloud server.


Turn off password authentication Linux:

With SSH key authentication configured and tested, you can disable password authentication for SSH all together to prevent brute-forcing. When logged in to your cloud server.

1. Open the SSH configuration file with the following command.

$ sudo nano /etc/ssh/sshd_config

2. Set the password authentication to no to disable clear text passwords.

PasswordAuthentication no

3. Check that public key authentication is enabled, just to be safe and not get locked out from your server. If you do find yourself unable to log in with SSH, you can always use the Web terminal control panel.

PubkeyAuthentication yes

Then save and exit the editor.

4. Restart the SSH service to apply the changes by using the command below.

$ sudo systemctl restart sshd

With that done your cloud server is now another step along towards security. 

Malicious attempts to connect to your server will results in authentication rejection, as plain passwords are not allowed, and brute-forcing an RSA key is practically impossible.

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Easy way to convert cPanel SSL Certificate from PEM format to PFX

pem is a de-facto file format called Privacy-Enhanced Mail. These are interchangeable file extensions for the PKCS#12 format. 

Technically, PKCS#12 is the successor to Microsoft's PFX format, but they have become interchangeable. PKCS#12 files are archives for cryptographic material.

PKCS#12 (also known as PKCS12 or PFX) is a binary format for storing a certificate chain and private key in a single, encryptable file.

All SSL Certificates require a private key to work. The private key is a separate file that's used in the encryption/decryption of data sent between your server and the connecting clients.

A private key is created by you—the certificate owner—when you request your certificate with a Certificate Signing Request (CSR).

Basically, the default SSL file format used by apache web server is the PEM format. Whereas PFX files are used on MacOS and Windows systems to do export and import activities of private keys and certificates.

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