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How to resolve ImagePullBackOff Kubernetes error ?

This article covers how to resolve the ImagePullBackOff Kubernetes error. In fact, ImagePullBackOff error typically shows up when the kubelet agent instructs the container runtime and can't pull the image from the container registry for various reasons.


Main causes behind your pod getting stuck in the ImagePullBackOff state:

  • Image doesn't exist.
  • Image tag or name is incorrect.
  • Image is private, and there is an authentication failure.
  • Network issue.
  • Registry name is incorrect.
  • Container registry rate limits.


More about CrashLoopBackOff Kubernetes Error - How to Fix ?

This article covers ways to tackle and avoid  the CrashLoopBackOff error in Kubernetes. In fact, CrashLoopBackOff is a status message that indicates one of your pods is in a constant state of flux— one or more containers are failing and restarting repeatedly. This typically happens because each pod inherits a default restartPolicy of Always upon creation.


Examples of why a pod would fall into a CrashLoopBackOff state include:

  • Errors when deploying Kubernetes.
  • Missing dependencies.
  • Changes caused by recent updates.


Activity process common to the discovery-to-fix a CrashLoopBackOff message:

  • The discovery process: This includes learning that one or more pods are in the restart loop and witnessing the apps contained therein either offline or just performing below optimal levels.
  • Information gathering: Immediately after the first step, most engineers will run a kubectl get pods command to learn a little more about the source of the failure. Common output from this is a list of all pods along with their current state
  • Drill down on specific pod(s): Once you know which pods are in the CrashLoopBackOff state, your next task is targeting each of them to get more details about their setup. For this, you can run the kubectl describe pod [variable] command with the name of your target pod as the command variable.
  • Once you've reached this point, several keywords should stick out. Focusing on these should make light work of decoding the list of variables around your pod.


How to Install Wireguard on Digitalocean server running Ubuntu 22.04 (Jammy Jellyfish) ?

This article covers how wireguard works on the Digitalocean platform running Ubuntu 22.04 (Jammy Jellyfish). In fact, WireGuard's encryption relies on public and private keys for peers to establish an encrypted tunnel between themselves. Each version of WireGuard uses a specific cryptographic cipher suite to ensure simplicity, security, and compatibility with peers.

Here, you will learn how to route the peer's Internet traffic through the WireGuard server in a gateway configuration, in addition to using the VPN for an encrypted peer-to-peer tunnel.


WireGuard vs OpenVPN , Which is better?

  • WireGuard offers a more reliable connection for mobile users than OpenVPN because it handles network changes better. 
  • OpenVPN adds a data overhead of up to 20%, whereas WireGuard uses just 4% more data (compared with not using a VPN). 
  • VPN services need to include mitigations to ensure user privacy when using WireGuard.


More about Digitalocean kubectl

This article covers how to use Digitalocean kubectl. In fact, Kubectl is a command-line tool designed to manage Kubernetes objects and clusters. It provides a command-line interface for performing common operations like creating and scaling Deployments, switching contexts, and accessing a shell in a running container.


To test that kubectl can authenticate with and access your Kubernetes cluster, use cluster-info:

$ kubectl cluster-info

To view your kubectl configuration, use the view subcommand:

$ kubectl config view

To fetch a list of clusters defined in your kubeconfig, use get-clusters:

$ kubectl config get-clusters

The general syntax for most kubectl management commands is:

$ kubectl command type name flags

Where:

  • command is an operation you'd like to perform, like create.
  • type is the Kubernetes resource type, like deployment.
  • name is the resource's name, like app_frontend.
  • flags are any optional flags you'd like to include.


More about Google Cloud Storage Coldline

This article covers oogle Cloud Coldline Storage. In fact, Google Cloud Storage Coldline is a public cloud cold storage service that is specifically designed to store data that organizations access no more than once a year.


Main features of Google Cloud Storage classes includes:

  • Unlimited storage with no minimum object size.
  • Worldwide accessibility and worldwide storage locations.
  • Low latency (time to first byte typically tens of milliseconds).
  • High durability (99.999999999% annual durability).
  • Geo-redundancy if the data is stored in a multi-region or dual-region.
  • A uniform experience with Cloud Storage features, security, tools, and APIs.


More about Terraform VPC in your DigitalOcean droplet ?

This article covers Terraform DigitalOcean VPC. In fact, the Terraform module to create VPCs on Digitalocean.